We can define an
instinct as ‘’the behaviour of humans and animals which are
not dependent on learning’’.
As can be understood
from this definiton the instincts are not psychological, but
they are physiological. One of the many negative
characteristics of a human being which can be considered
among the basic instincts is the instinct to live.
instincts we must at first know the two ideas that belong
to Darwin and Konrad Lorenz respectively.
Darwin, the instincts are acquired unconsciously step
by step by natural choice following the changes in the
organs of the mind. Whereas, Lorenz approaches the
subject from the genetic aspect and he expresses that the
instincts are hereditary.
Lorenz says that
‘’the instincts are transferred by means of genetic
formation from one person to another and they are being felt
from the moment of birth.’’
In the light of all
this information I am thinking from which part of the
DNA is the instinct being transferred. However,
until now I could not find an answer. Unfortunately, the
data available in the positive science is not sufficient
yet. Only; some findings, the statistical information
proves that the instincts can be transferred by means of
There are lots of
examples regarding the instincts. Also, in the animals the
instincts have been genetically coded.
For example, a
shark has to swim and stay awake all the time. This
terrifying animal spends all its life by gathering the
organic wastes in the seas. Therefore, stopping is
synonymous with dying for this animal.
As a result, it is
clear that along with such characteristics the animals have
a life energy and they too are afraid of death.
Another example is
regarding the after life realm. The feeling named as fear
will come out consciously or unconsciously as an instinct
regardless of belief. Actually, we can’t say that the
belief factor is playing an important role here.
‘’Fear does not help death’’ shows this clearly.
Regarding this point
we can say that the difference between the human beings
and the animals is that the animals do not know anything
about the life beyond death. The reason is that the animal
does not have a brain which can make it feel the existence
of after life (This is the reason why the animals are
not expected to be responsible). Therefore, the actions of
an animal are directed by its instincts and as a result the
relevant information is not accumulated in its data base.
In other words, it does not have any fear regarding the two
meters below the ground. However, they are afraid of death
as we do and they all run away from the events that may end
up with death. Such information shows that the behaviour of
the animals are totally instinctive.
Of course, at the
same time we must admit that in the humans the conditionings
and the value judgements have an important role in this. As
there wouldn’t be a value judgement in the animal, its fear
of death is completely related with its life energy. The
animal too does not want its life to come to an end.
Even this is in
connection with the formation of its genes.
On the other hand,
the human being has to determine his objective in life,
his way of behaviour and he has to accept the fact about the
after life realm (life beyond death). He has such a superior
consciousness and freedom.
While religion is
telling us that the important thing is the system, it also
authorizes the Nabi(s)/ Rasul(s) who can observe the
dimension beyond, to speak about heaven in order to
encourage an individual and hell in order to make him